Day 1 :
MWH Global-Middle East, United Arab Emirates
Keynote: Quantifying the future impacts of potential desalination technologies in the Arabian Gulf upon the Gulf environment
Time : 09:30 - 10:00
Walid Elshorbagy is a Professor and Technical Lead in MWH Global - Middle East with 30 years’ experience in the area of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. Before he joined MWH in June 2015 and while his tenure of 19 years in the UAE University, he conducted several studies in collaboration with the industry related to coastal hydrodynamics, EIA, water resources management, hydraulics, water quality, and wastewater treatment. His research outcomes have been documented in more than 100 publications.
Due to the arid environment and scarcity of natural renewable water resources in the Arabian Gulf (AG) area, most Gulf countries heavily rely on desalination for their domestic supplies. Such countries have major future development plans and expect to significantly extend their desalination capacities to meet the eventual growing water demands. The impact of massive future effluents from coastal desalination plants and other major coastal industries on the salinity and temperature of the AG has always been a concern and a constraint in future extension and development. A recent study utilized a 3D hydrodynamic model to evaluate the long term changes of the AG salinity and temperature (up to year 2080) considering the aforementioned effluents superimposed with climate change projections of the atmospheric ocean general circulation climate models (AOGCM) in a multi-model approach. The used model was calibrated against short-term records of water levels and currents and against long term records of evaporation, salinity, and temperature. The near-shore long term variability at the desalination intakes; representing observational points in the computational domain, was quantitatively assessed for a number of selected development scenarios. The impacts of future coastal effluents on the AG salinity and temperature were found very small and localized near the effluent points when compared to impacts of climate change. Future operational costs of desalinated water produced by four main desalination technologies (MSF, MED, RO, and Hybrid) were estimated based on the projected changes of ambient coastal conditions. The estimated costs were considered in calculating surrogate indicators referred to as Least Negatively Impacted (LNI) technology produced at major desalination plants in all Gulf countries. MED was found to be the technology of least LNI at all AG locations followed by different technologies depending on the location due to its different circulation conditions.
Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao
Keynote: Effect of mercury and lead (heavy metal pollution) on the maternal animal and embryonic development of viviparous scorpion during the gestation period
Time : 10:00 - 10:30
M V Raghavendra Rao, PhD, worked as Professor of microbiology, parasitology, immunology and Epidemiology in many universities in India, China, Nepal, Libya, and Philippines. Currently, he is working at Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, Netherland Antilles. He has more than 40 years of teaching and research experience. He supervised 3 students for PhD, and 8 students for MPhil. He authored 18 text books. Three universities appointed him as their advisor and 3 universities acknowledged him with fellowships.
Heavy metals are essential to normal development of organ systems as well as body metabolism. These are useful to the growth of tissues, synthesis and activity. Many heavy metals like copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, etc., are important components of biochemical functions. However heavy metals at higher concentrations prove to be hazardous affecting life and life processes. Man has always been exposed to heavy metals through natural concentration in soil and water. Metals leached from eating from utensils and vessels used for cooking increased the risk. The emergence of the industrial age and large scale mining brought occupational hazards caused by various toxic metals. Metallic constituents of pesticides and therapeutic agents are additional sources of hazardous exposure. The burning of fossil fuels containing heavy metals and the addition of tetra ethyl lead to gasoline have now become the major sources of heavy metal poisoning, adding to environmental pollution, with the increased usage of chemicals in modern technology, the concentration of the metals is increasing in the environment. Heavy metals are known to affect reproduction and development of animals. Trans placental movement of methyl mercury in women caused feto- toxicity. Exposure to heavy metals caused more damage to fetus than to mother. Lead crosses the placenta and causes abortion and fetal loss. Increased maternal exposure to lead resulted in the increased lead content in fetus and new born in pregnant women. Heavy metals, finding entry in to an organism induce biochemical and metabolic changes. Man today is living in a world created by him that is becoming more and more hostile every day owing to pollution. Is it possible for us to live without pesticides, without heavy metals, and without radioactive substances and vehicles? It is just not possible.