Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference on Pollution Control and Sustainable Environment London, UK.

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Day 1 :

  • Bioenergy and Biofuels |Renewable Energy |Light Pollution|Environmental Pollution | Pollution | Air Pollution and Treatment |Water Pollution and Treatment |Solid Waste Disposal|Marine Pollution

Session Introduction

Daud Hassan

University of Western Sydney Australia

Title: Legal Regimes of Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution Control: A Global South Perspective
Speaker
Biography:

Associate Professor Daud Hassan joined the University of Western Sydney in 2009 with considerable teaching, research and community service experience. Daud taught at five different universities in Australia and Overseas, including University of Technology Sydney and Victoria University, Melbourne. Daud holds a PhD in the Law of the Sea. He has built up a formidable international reputation in the field of ocean governance. The international stature of Daud's work has been recognised by Visiting Professorships at various universities in Asia and Europe. His research work addresses global and regional environmental issues that are of international significance. His research spans many countries and jurisdictions including Australia, Bangladesh, China, Finland, Hong Kong, Japan, Norway and Switzerland. Currently Daud is the Director of International Centre for Ocean Governance at the University of Western Sydney.

Abstract:

Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution (LBSMP) is responsible for 80% of marine pollution.  Although, several legal and policy arrangements have been undertaken at international level in the prevention and control of LBSMP such as the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the 1985 Montreal Guidelines on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land Based Sources, Agenda 21 of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 1992 and the 1995 Global Program of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land Based Sources (the GPA) questions remains as to the effectiveness  of the current regimes to control LBSMP.Identifying the major sources of LBSMP the paper will examine the problems, challenges and prospects of controlling LBSMP in developing countries. Highlighting the importance of controlling LBSMP for the effective protection of the marine environment in sustainable manner the paper will evaluate the applications of environmental management principles in developing countries.

Speaker
Biography:

Doron Lavee holds a PhD in Public Economics from the Ben-Gurion University, an MA in Economics and an MBA in Business Administration and Economics from the Hebrew University. He is a member of the Department of Economics and Management at Tel-Hai Academic College. He also serves as a Partner and General Manager of Pareto Group Ltd. He is a well-known expert with over 22 years of experience in economic and environmental consulting, financial advisory and strategic consulting in various fields, including issues related to economic efficiency and the periphery. He has extensive experience in managing complex projects and large-scale environmental economic consulting and conducting projects for the public and government sectors, including governmen

Abstract:

It is estimated that a quarter of the world's population is exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, resulting largely from human activities, causing premature death of approximately two million people annually. In particular, ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM) adversely affect human health and are associated with morbidity and premature human mortalities. Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems that Israel is facing today, causing morbidity and mortality in many parts of the country, and has long been a priority in Israel’s environmental policy. The aim of this paper is to identify the most suitable and economically feasible policy measures for reducing concentrations of PM and O3 in Israel. The analysis includes two main examinations. The first quantifies the economic cost of health effects caused by the failure to meet the target pollution values. The examined health effects include both chronic exposure effects and acute exposure effects. This examination is based on the estimation of health effects due to exposure to PM and O3, on the economic quantification of health effects due to pollution and on expected pollution values of pollutants based on the BAU scenario. The second examination is a CBA analysis of additional policy measures (additional to the measures assumed implemented in the BAU scenario) that are aimed to reduce pollution. This examination is based on quantifying the cost and benefit of the different policy measures. An applicability check that includes a global comparison of implementation of the different measures was performed as well, and the most appropriate policy measures are recognized. Table 5 presents the reduction rates, in terms of emission (kg/hr) of the various pollutants, expected from the implementation of the proposed policy measures. The table is presented as a comparison to the BAU scenario for each of the target years. The change in the emissions in the target years is calculated relative to the emissions in 2010. According to our findings, the vast majority of the examined measures are feasible, have a positive net benefit to the economy and are expected to lead to considerable reductions in pollutants. These policy measures have a significant impact on reducing air pollution on one hand, while constituting the highest net benefit to the economy on the other. Although the detailed estimates of benefits and costs presented in this paper refer to Israel, the basic methodology presented is applicable universally. Such assessments may assist policy makers to carry out informed decisions on such subjects.

Pelumi W. Oluwasanya

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Title: Particulate Matter Monitoring – Past, present and future.
Speaker
Biography:

Pelumi is a PhD student at the University of Cambridge. He is supervised by Dr Luigi Occhipinti, with Prof. Rod Jones as co-supervisor. His current research interests include air quality monitoring, and printable sensor technologies for monitoring air pollution.He has a BSc(Hons.) degree in Electrical Engineering from Olabisi Onabanjo University, an MSc in Signal Processing from The University of Edinburgh and has recently completed a Master of Research(MRes) degree in Sensor Technologies and Applications, he is an IEEE Member

Abstract:

The health problems caused by exposure to airborne particulate matter(PM) beyond safe limits has been studied for many years. Government regulatory agencies have adapted and updated the safe exposure limits as more progress is made both in policy developments and detection system design. Bulky PM detectors, though very accurate do not provide sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, are static and expensive. Current much smaller commercial PM sensors are mobile but still mostly too expensive and largely still too big for real-time continuous personal use. They also must be calibrated to convert their counts to mass concentration despite their variation from unit to unit. The continuous drive towards having a cheaper, smaller, yet more effective PM sensors for personal exposure analysis and indoor environments is pushing the current boundaries of current techniques. Emerging PM sensing techniques must now achieve this, while also linking to other structured source apportionment and semantic analysis of air quality data aimed at providing useful information about user activities mostly provided via the internet. This review highlights works on PM detection and monitoring, covering history, theory, methods and principle of operation of detection instruments, large and small scale source apportionment, instrument calibration processes and performance evaluation techniques, emerging trends and future outlooks. Further, this work reviews PM2.5 detection and its challenges, assumptions in measurement interpretation and possible solutions going forward.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Associate Professor in Chemistry in USTP. Obtained BS Chemistry degree in Xavier University, Ateneo de Cagayan as an academic scholar of the university and Pilipinas KAO (Kao Global Chemicals, Japan). A licensed Chemist and a trained Chemical Safety and Security Officer of the US Department of State. Earned MS Physical Sciences major in Chemistry minor in Physics at USTP. Also earned MSc Water Management at UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands, funded academically by Netherlands Fellowship Program (NFP) and research by PRoACC2. PhD studies in IHE-Delft and TU Delft is funded by NFP and Schlumberger Foundation

Abstract:

Developing countries in Southeast Asia, are facing the challenge of the ASEAN Vision 2020 to produce quality agricultural products that will cater not only to its local consumers but to approximately 600 million people across ten ASEAN nations. Agricultural expansion through land conversion were intensified in developing countries experiencing rapid economic growth, especially those with transition in the economic structure. To obtain high yield and quality agricultural production, pesticides are used by farmers. It cannot be denied that pesticides provide huge benefits to people and the country’s economy by preserving agricultural products and control infestations. However, the potential to cause harm to human and the environment if mismanaged and overused are not fully understood even by the end users, the farmers. Despite economic gain, there is always a trade-off. It is not also well established that even small amount of pesticides, especially the banned pesticides, can give chronic effects to human. What is more alarming, banned pesticides in Europe and the US are still used and available in the market in the Philippines and Vietnam. These banned pesticides can biomagnify in the food chain and human body. Even when pesticides are developed with strict guidelines for a very reasonable purpose, the application and management of pesticides should be done with many precautionary measures.This research then aims to bridge the gap of knowledge on the long term effects of pesticide exposure to human health

Hamideh Nouri

University of Twente, The Netherlands

Title: Soil salinity from wastewater irrigation in urban greenery
Speaker
Biography:

Dr Hamideh Nouri is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Twente in the Netherlands. After earning her BSc in Irrigation Engineering in Iran (2000), she worked in the Irrigation industry for 7 years. She moved to Malaysia to do her MSc in Soil and Water Engineering (2009). In 2010, she moved to Australia for her PhD in Civil Engineering (2014) that was followed by a postdoctoral research position there (2016). She has over sixteen years’ experience in industry and academia as a consultant and research scientist, both in urban environments and agriculture in different countries. Her research covers the broad range of sustainable management of water and soil resources and applications of remote sensing & GIS in the local, national and global levels.

Abstract:

The potential risk of salt leaching through wastewater irrigation is of concern for most local governments and city councils. Despite the necessity of salinity monitoring and management in urban greenery, most attention has been on agricultural fields. This study was defined to investigate the capability and feasibility of monitoring and predicting soil salinity using near sensing and remote sensing approaches using EM38 surveys, and  high resolution multispectral image of WorldView3. Veale Gardens within the Adelaide Parklands was selected as the experimental site. The results of the near sensing investigation were validated by testing soil salinity samples in the laboratory. Over 30 band combinations that form salinity indices were tested using image processing techniques. The outcomes of the remote sensing and near sensing approaches were compared to examine whether remotely sensed salinity indicators could map and predict the spatial variation of soil salinity through a potential statistical model. Statistical analysis was undertaken using the Stata 13 statistical package on over 52,000 points. Several regression models were fitted to the data and the mixed effect modelling was selected the most appropriate one as it takes to account the systematic observation-specific unobserved heterogeneity. Results showed that SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) was the only salinity index that could be considered as a predictor for soil salinity but further investigation is needed. However, near sensing was found as a rapid, practical and realistically accurate approach for salinity mapping of heterogeneous urban vegetation.

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

Energy Research Institute (ERI) United Kingdom

Title: POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENT: REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
Speaker
Biography:

Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHO'S WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 200 review articles, 7 books and 150 chapters in books

Abstract:

Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows. This study discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology for communities. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives.

Janis Campbell

University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, USA

Title: Air Pollution and Childhood Acute Leukemia in Oklahoma
Speaker
Biography:

Janis Campbell is an Associate Professor of Research at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Public Health, Department of Biostistics and Epidmiology and adjunch faculyt with the Department of Geriatric Medicine. She has over 25 year history working in disease surveillance in Oklahoma much of that working working in mixed methods, Of particular importance was the almost ten years that I was the PI for the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry.

 

Abstract:

Despite numerous epidemiologic studies, the etiology of childhood cancer is still largely unknown. Benzene is a known carcinogen in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In addition, ambient air pollution has been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, but studies have not established whether air pollution is associated with childhood leukemia. The goal of this study was to determine if children with acute leukemia have higher odds of exposure to benzene compared controls, accounting for other sources of ambient pollution, specifically, traffic-related air pollution.

We conducted a case-control study matched on week of birth using the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry as our source for acute leukemia cases diagnosed from 1997-2012 (n=307, including 79 AML and 228 acute lymphoid leukemia) and birth certificates to identify controls (n=1,022). Census tract-level benzene estimates were obtained from the 2005 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) and assigned using maternal residence at delivery. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were obtained as a marker of traffic-related air pollutants and estimated using a satellite-based land-use regression model. To determine if benzene, categorized by quartile, was associated with acute leukemia after adjustment for NO2 and other potential confounders, we used multivariable conditional logistic regression. 

Speaker
Biography:

Ana Lucić Vrdoljak has completed her PhD from University of Zagreb, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry. She is appointed as a Scientific Advisor at the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia, and as a lecturer at the Department of Biotechnology, University of Rijeka. Her research interest are focused on experiments dealing acetylcholinesterase poisoning and search for more effective therapy. She also possesses extensive experience in human biomonitoring using the acetylcholinesterase assay and cytogenetic techniques to assess and control the risk of long-term outcomes associated with exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Her work has been presented through 60 scientific papers.

Abstract:

Organophosphate compounds are among the most frequently used pesticides worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos, which was orally administered to male Wistar rats at 0.160 mg/kg, 0.015 mg/kg, and 0.010 mg/kg for 28 days. Following treatment, the level of lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was estimated in plasma and brain. To establish the potential DNA damaging effects of the exposure, we applied an alkaline comet assay on the white blood cells and brain tissue of the exposed and control animals. We found that 28-day exposure resulted in dose-dependent changes in AChE activity, which was significantly more depressed in the brain. Lipid peroxidation, presented as TBARS concentration, was elevated both in plasma and in the brain. All of the tested doses of chlorpyrifos were slightly genotoxic, both to the white blood cells and brain tissue. Taken together, our findings confirmed the AChE-inhibiting potency of chlorpyrifos and indicated that its toxicity was mediated through free radicals, which contributed to DNA instability. Considering that our study focused on very low doses of chlorpyrifos within toxicology reference values our results call for further research using other sensitive biomarkers of effect, along with different exposure scenarios

Speaker
Biography:

Mr. Ben Lucas has been actively involved in the specific industry of source assessment and replacement of hazardous and toxic solvent used in industry for more than fifteen years. He has personally worked on successful projects with some of the largest companies in the aerospace, oil & gas, wind power and composite manufacturing industry. His support of these industry leaders has taken him all over the world to ensure the successful identification, implementation and ongoing benefits seen with adopting safer, green chemistry in operations. He has published and presented a number of articles and papers over his career

Abstract:

Chemical characteristics dictate that any solvent that will have a more benign environmental and toxicological characteristic will have different behavioral characteristics. It becomes necessary to adopt systematic implementation guidelines for the required substitution. This paper will present specific guidelines for successfully implementing the adoption of alternate green chemistry in a given process related to industrial production, manufacturing and service related big box facilities. It will present a tested and easily utilized method for identifying the sources of hazardous waste, hazardous air emission, and worker-safety issues associated with the use of conventional solvents in most chemical use processes. Manufacturing processes, such as assembly, inspection and coating applications often involve the use of toxic solvents and degreasing chemicals throughout. The potential for worker exposure concerns, along with the highly regulated air emissions, as VOCs or HAPs, and disposal of these materials make them a high source for impact associated with regulatory burdens and can be low hanging fruit for replacement opportunities. Employing these guidelines will help assure a successful implementation. Solvent substitution guidelines include: Identification of suitable candidates, Process mapping, Group theory based analysis, Hybrid-Chemistry approaches, Engineering and QA analysis, Off-line testing, Orientation of technicians and supervisors, Training employees, Implementation, Process changes. Ongoing Support, Evaluation and of course Troubleshooting. This paper provides examples of successful solvent substitution projects that have been undertaken, the processes involved in assessment and implementation, as well as considerable detail on organizing process changes in production to accommodate the new materials and thereby gaining the environmental and health benefit without negatively affecting operational needs. These projects will showcase the tools needed, as regulations drive industry towards alternative chemicals, to ensure successful implementation of green, non-hazardous solvents in some processes. It will outline how they have successfully reduced hazardous emissions, hazardous waste generation and reduced the carbon footprint along with significant cost savings and improved worker exposure liability concerns for any organization that chooses to go green. It will do so with a thorough presentation of procedures that ensure a higher potential for success, and thereby less dependency on industrial habit and conventional chemicals that burden production by their ever increasing regulatory requirements.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. J. Hot is a lecturer in Civil Engineering at Toulouse University/LMDC in France (LMDC: Laboratory of Materials and Durability of Constructions). She was recruited in September 2015 to develop research activities on indoor air quality, the comfort and the health of building occupants. Her area of expertise is twofold: the study of indoor air depollution by photocatalysis at a laboratory scale with a photoreactor and in real-world conditions using a 10-m3 environmental chamber; and the characterization of the VOCs emissions of building materials. She is notably in charge of the development of the experimental procedures related to indoor air quality.

Abstract:

For a few years, the improvement of indoor air quality has become a major concern of industrial countries and a priority in the French legislation. Indoor air is contaminated by a variety of gaseous and biological pollutants, which impact human health, comfort and productivity. Building materials, decorative products and furniture are regularly mentioned as potential sources of pollution in indoor environment. Moreover, urban areas are highly polluted with nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) produced by intensive human activity, notably transport. In housing, NOx are produced by domestic combustion devices such as gas burners for cooking and come from outdoor pollution (infiltration). Depolluting materials active indoor have thus received increasing attention in recent years. The application of a photocatalytic coating based on TiO2 to surfaces is a promising method. However, most of research work in the litterature focused on the efficiency of such product at the laboratory scale under controlled conditions. This paper investigates a new test method to assess and compare over a relatively short duration the effectiveness of air depolluting materials in conditions approaching those of real-world. A 10-m3 experimental chamber was equipped to study the photocatalytic degradation of nitric oxides NO. Firstly, the experimental setup used to highlight photocatalytic activity of tested samples was presented. The adequacy of the defined experimental parameters was justified. Secondly, various photocatalytic treatments applied to plasterboard surfaces were tested. In addition, the effects of illumination and photocatalytic dispersion formulation on NO degradation efficiency by photocatalysis were studied.

Speaker
Biography:

Hamad Al-Mebayedh, Currently second year PhD student at Salford University In Environmental Engineering, graduated from Aberdeen University with a BEng degree in Civil and structural engineering. obtained 2 masters degrees, one in Project Management, the second in drilling and well design both from Aberdeen. More than 10 years’ experience as an environmental engineer in Kuwait oil sector,  currently working for Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) as Senior Engineer Projects. have involved in several environmental remediation mega projects, for instant  $3.2 billion environment remediation program of the Iraqi aggression environment damages to Kuwait awarded by the United Nation

Abstract:

In any drilling operation for oil and gas the risk of contamination above and under the groung is very high. It is noiced that cracking in oil well casing under the groung could contaminate underground water. Furthermore, during oil drilling operation the contaminated soil that well be left behind required remediation technologies for cleaning up the miss.  The main objective of this research project  is is to charicterize oil contaminated soil and reveals the unkown phisical, chimical, and geotecnical properties inclouding  volumes, presence and the impact of oil contamination by the development of annovative novel 3D soil mapping technology for hydrocarbon contaminated sites. Morover, This research document will suport the decition makers on the most suitable environmental strategy and aproch to takel  the environmental damages. The objectives of this research achieved by investigating wet and dry oil lakes, sludge pits, and wellheads pits caused by the Gulf War 1991.The 3-D modelling technologies are highly efficient and effective for assessing the spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in soils with great contamination depth that makes field sampling highly costly and labour-intensive. The 3-D modeling technologies will allow significant reduction in the number of sampling points while the quality of soil characterization can be assured. in addition, this technology cover larger areas of soil characterization and investigation in time efficient with quality and cost effective which will assured QA/QC with optimum achievement towards HSE requirement . forthermore, this models could be used to predict the possible impacts of the petroleum hydrocarbons on the groundwater, and guide the sampling outcomes before and subsequent to soil remediation

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Constantinos Sioutas, Sc.D., is the first holder of the Fred Champion Professorship in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Southern California (USC). His research has focused on investigations of the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to airborne ultrafine particulate pollutants generated by a variety of sources. He has developed many state-of-the-art technologies used by many academic institutions and national laboratories for aerosol sampling and characterization. He has authored over 300 peer-reviewed journal publications, and holds 13 U.S. patents in the development of instrumentation for aerosol measurement and emissions control. His work has been cited in more than 15,000 scientific publications.  He is the recipient of the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) David Sinclair award in 2014 (AAAR’s highest distinction), the Hagen Smit award of Atmospheric Environment for seminal publications, the 2010 Scientific and Technological Achievement Award by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and a Fulbright fellow

Abstract:

Transportation-related emissions are of particular concern in large metropolitan areas as they are associated with adverse health outcomes. Therefore, mitigation strategies and accurate assessment of these emissions are essential in improving the air quality and understanding the effectiveness of regulations. To this end, extensive measurements were carried out in different micro-environments in the megalopolis of Los Angeles (LA). On-road measurements of fine-particulate matter (PM2.5) at three major roadways in LA (i.e. on two major freeways and surface streets) indicated substantially higher levels of carcinogenic including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and redox active metals on freeways in comparison to surface streets. The observed PM2.5-induced toxicity on freeways was 2 times higher than surface streets. However, comparison with previous studies in the past decade in LA suggested an overall reduction in the contribution of carbonaceous species to PM mass, indicating the effectiveness of targeted vehicle emissions control policies implemented in recent years in the state of California. In contrast, greater contributions of certain groups of metals and trace elements that are indicators of non-tailpipe (e.g. brake and tire wear) emissions to both PM mass and toxicity over the years provided evidence on the increasing importance of non-tailpipe emissions which are largely unregulated, as vehicular exhaust becomes cleaner. An extensive sampling campaign in two lines of the LA Metro system indicated that PAHs concentration were about 4 times higher on freeways than both Metro systems resulting in 3.8-fold higher lung cancer risk due to exposure to carcinogens based on a commuter lifetime. Additionally, studies conducted in the Port of Long Beach demonstrated that quasi-ultrafine particles (PM0.25) concentration and its chemical constituents have decreased as the result of stringent regulations during the past decade. In another study conducted in the metropolitan area of Milan, Italy, we demonstrated that developing pedestrian zones in the city center is also effective in drastically reducing exposure to carcinogens emitted by traffic, signifying that in addition to mitigation strategies, developing alternative transportation means and urban planning are essential in improving the air quality for a sustainable city.

Speaker
Biography:

Nadezhda Kudryasheva completed M.Sc., Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, USSR . She has published more than 300 articles. Her main research interests are spectroscopy, structure of molecules, chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, physico-chemical processes in biological systems, bioassays, toxic mechanisms, radiotoxicity, hormesis, antioxidant activity. Currently working at Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Abstract:

Luminescence of living systems is a convenient parameter to monitor environmental toxicity. Luminescent systems of different complexity – luminous marine bacteria, their enzyme reactions, and coelenteramide-containing fluorescent proteins (CLM-CFPs) were used as bioassays to monitor toxicity of water solutions under model conditions; toxic effects were compared at cellular, biochemical and protein levels, respectively. Organic compounds, metallic salts, and radioactive elements (under conditions of low-dose irradiation) were applied to vary toxicity of media. Luminescence inhibition (toxic) and activation (adaptive response) effects were evaluated and discussed. Application of CLM-CFPs as toxicity bioassays of a new type is justified, they can serve as a proper tool for study efficiency of primary physicochemical processes in organisms under external exposures. Coelenteramide (CLM), fluorophore of CLM-CFPs, is a photochemically active molecule; it acts as a proton donor in its electron-excited states, generating several forms of different fluorescent state energy and, hence, different fluorescence color, from violet to green. Contributions of the forms to the visible fluorescence depend on the CLM microenvironment in proteins. Hence, CLM-CFPs can serve as fluorescence biomarkers with color differentiation to monitor results of destructive biomolecule exposures. Variations of spectral-luminescent and photochemical properties of CLM-CFPs under different exposures – chemicals and ionizing radiation is considered.Application of the luminescent bioassays for detoxification efficiency evaluation is discussed. Natural and artificial bioactive compounds, humic substances and fullerenols, are used as detoxifying agents. Detoxification mechanisms were revealed to be complex, with chemical, biochemical, and cellular aspects conditioning those.

Speaker
Biography:

Oleg G Kuzminykh got a bachelor degree in Material Sciences in 2016. Now he is the MA course student at Voronezh State University. Previously, his scientific interest concern was in the study of narrow-band gap semiconductors with infrared radiation sensitivity. In particular, he studied the microstructure of lead telluride thin films prepared on silicon and barium fluoride substrates by “hot wall” technique.  Now he studies the wide band gap metal oxide semiconductors for gas sensors.

Abstract:

One of the environment protection important problems is a detection of oxidizing gases in the ambient air. Three out of six common air pollutants (also called as “criteria pollutants”) are oxidizing gases: nitrogen oxides, low level ozone (or tropospheric ozone), and sulfur dioxide. Breathing ozone and nitrogen oxides can trigger a variety of human health problems, particularly for children, the elderly, and people who have lung diseases. Therefore, monitoring of O3 and NOx concentration in the ambient air is a critical task for human health protection. For these reasons, the various types of the binary, ternary and quaternary metal-oxide semiconductors have been widely studied for oxidizing gas detection.Thin films of palladium oxide are set forth as promising material for oxidizing gas detection. PdO thin thin films were prepared by thermal oxidation at dry oxygen of previously formed Pd layers on different substrates. By high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray analysis it has been established that oxidation of initial Pd layers at T = 770 - 1070 K led to formation of homogenous polycrystalline PdO films. At ozone detection PdO films prepared by oxidation at T = 870 K have shown the good values of sensitivity, signal stability, operation speed, and reproducibility of sensor response. At ozone concenteration interval ~100 – 250 ppb the values of sensor response S varied from S = 8.5 to S = 14.2. In comparison with other materials, palladium oxide thin films have some advantages at gas sensor fabrication. Firstly, at rather low operating temperatures PdO films have shown good values of functional parameters. Secondly, the synthesis procedure of binary PdO films is rather simple and is compatible with planar processes of microelectronic industry.

Speaker
Biography:

Thalatha Sreeni Ranasinghe has completed her BSc at the age of 26 years from University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and two MSc degrees from World Maritime University, Sweden and Open University of Sri Lanka. She is the Assistant Manager of Marine Environment Protection Authority, a premier Maritime Service organization. She has published 3 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of Sri Lanka Journal of Marine Environmental Sciences and the Proceedings of the Symposia related Marine Environmental Sciences in Sri Lanka. Currently she is conducting researches related on marine pollution in Sri Lankan coastal region

Abstract:

The release of unmanaged ships’ ballast water (BW) affects marine ecosystems, humans and their activities. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention to prevent, and eradicate this risk.In this study, classification of the main requirements of the BWM convention was done by Flag State (FS), Port States (PS) and Coastal States (CS). Five basic requirements as FS are identified as Guidance, National Strategy & legislations, Survey, certification & recognized organizations, Approval for BWM Systems, Training of crew members & transfer of knowledge and Violation detections, sanction & investigation. Five basic requirements as PS was identified; Protecting port areas & socio-economic activities, Compliance monitoring & enforcement, Training of Port State Control officers, Regional and international cooperation and Sediment reception facilities. Also, five basic requirements identified as CS are Environment monitoring & scientific research, Contingency plans, preparedness, awareness & additional measures, Risk assessments, exemptions & determination of designated areas, Detection and investigation of violations & notification and Regional & international cooperation.Sri Lanka is exposed and vulnerable to Invasive Alien Species (IAS). Inclusive study of the risks of IAS was carried out and information collected regarding the exposure and the preparedness of the ratification of BWM in Sri Lanka as FS, PS and CS. Critically analyzed the current position of the country in relation to ballast water and sediment management practices. Financial, legal and institutional capacities are identified as the main challenges of the implementation process of the BWM Convention in Sri Lanka.

Speaker
Biography:

Prakash Sarwa has completed her PhD in Environmental Biotechnology from Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS), Pilani, India. She is presently pursuing post doctoral studies at department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani. She has 10 years of research experience in the area of environmental biotechnology and applied phycology. She has published many research articles in renowned international journals and presented papers in international conferences. She was also actively involved in international workshops conducted by American Society of Microbiology on bioremediation. 

Abstract:

The potential of green microalgae Scenedesmus sp. MCC 26 isolated from textile and dyeing industrial site was investigated for removal of Malachite Green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. Batch studies were conducted to study the effect of pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. The adsorption kinetics were analyzed using  pseudo first order and pseudo second order model and sorption data tend to fit very well in pseudo second order model for the entire sorption time. The Weber-Morris model revealed two step adsorption of MG with initial cell surface adsorption followed by intra-particle diffusion of dye molecules. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin Radushkevich isotherm models have been used to evaluate the equilibrium data for dye adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of algae (125 mg/g) was observed at pH 6.0 within first 60 min of contact time at 30° C. Freundlich isotherm model with r2=0.986 represents the dye adsorption data successfully and shows the heterogeneous mode of adsorption. Algal biosorbent was characterized before and after dye adsorption using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to obtain the information on the nature of possible cell–dye molecule interactions

Speaker
Biography:

Javier Fernández García obtained his bachelor degree in Chemical Engineering in 2007 and master´s degree in Environmental and Processes Engineering in 2010 from University of Oviedo, Spain, while he worked in research activities for different companies such as Saint-Gobain and XSTRATA. In 2011 he started his PhD in Chemical Engineering working in the LOWCARB European Project. He received the cum laude award in 2014 and then he moved to the School of Engineering at University of Warwick, where he is currently working as a postdoctoral researcher.


 

Abstract:

Power plants working on coal, gas and liquid fuel are one of the main contributors to the total CO2 emissions. Due to their distribution, they are considered to be the most suitable localized centers for implementation of CO2 capture technologies. By developing an integrated system of CO2 looping capable to operate at extreme temperatures of hot effluent power plant gas emissions, the problem of CO2 mitigation can be resolved on a large scale, considering a consecutive conversion of the captured CO2 into valuable products (methanol).CO2 adsorption/conversion units can be integrated within power plants and powered during the periods of low energy consumption thus stabilizing the grid, reducing harmful emissions and yielding viable products. In this work, radio-frequency heated fixed bed reactor with CaO sorbent produced by template synthesis was proposed as CO2 looping system. CaO-sorbents, prepared by template synthesis, benefit from higher pore volume and better stability under high temperature over several cycles. In comparison to conventionally heated reactor, which presents poor control and long stabilization, RF heating provided fast heat-up and cool-down regimes, overall better control of the temperature and less heat losses. Under RF heating CaO sorbent achieved its stable operation in much shorter period of time (10-15 cycles in comparison to 35-40 for conventional heating). In addition, higher desorption rate of CO2 and lower degree of the sorbents sintering was observed for RF facilitated heating in comparison to conventional set up. It has been suggested that the implementation of this set-up in power energy plants is feasible and the radiofrequency is a suitable option to create a possibility to use hydrogen as purge gas that would create a mixture suitable for methanol synthesis.