Day 2 :
University of Lille, France
Keynote: Implication of mercury contaminations on biogeochemical processes in anoxic sediments of a strongly polluted site
Time : 9:30 - 10:00
Baghdad OUDDANE has obtained a PhD in Environmental Chemistry in 1990 and a HDR (Higher Degree by Research) in 1997 at Lille 1 University. Lecturer (1992-2003) and Full Professor at Lille1 University since 2003. He is the Head of the Master "Water Treatment" in Lille1 University. He has published more than 110 papers in reputed Environmental Journals and more than 120 communications in national and international conferences and co-authors of four books (two popular science), he is a referee in several international journals in the field of environment.
Mercury is a specific and ubiquitous element in the environment, it’s considered as a global pollutant because of its long-range atmospheric transport and its complex biogeochemical cycle. Mercury is among the most hazardous environmental pollutants, given by its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg or CH3Hg). This form is the most toxic species of mercury, because of its bio-accumulative character in living organisms throughout the food web. In natural waters, mercury species are present at very low concentrations. For this reason, most analytical techniques do not achieve accurate direct measurement of Hg or MeHg, which necessitates preconcentration to meet their limit of detection. Part of this work includes some analytical development methods and also includes a field study on the distribution and biogeochemical behavior of mercury in Rivers of the Deûle and Lys (Northern France). The results have showed high concentrations of total mercury (HgT) in the Deûle contaminated by a former smelter "Metaleurop". The concentrations of HgT measured in the Lys are much lower. Although the Deûle sediments are highly burdened with HgT as compared to the Lys sediments, much higher percentage of methylmercury is found in Lys River. Suspended particles are the major Hg carrier phase and transporters of Hg pollution from the Deûle to the Lys River. Despite the fact that the former Metaleurop smelter is closed for almost a decade, mercury levels are still high in the Deûle, creating an Hg hotspot for mercury pollution to surrounding environments carrying Hg hundred kilometers downstream the river reaching the Northsea.
Egyptian Modern Center, Egypt
Keynote: Rainbow & pollution
Time : 10:00 - 10:30
Wafik Noseir is an Environmental Engineering Consultant. He has been working in teaching industry since 1983, and has many papers in the sustainable development. He worked at Solar Energy Corporation "Honeywell", and as Petroleum Sector Planning & Follow-up Manager in 3 main companies. He worked at international companies such as “Arthur Anderson” consultant, Coca-Cola as a Projects & Environmental Manager, National Project of Egypt "Toshka" as Project Manager. He participated in many International Conferences especially the World Congress for the Environment at Washington DC, California, Portland Origin, Florida, France, Turkey, UK and Denmark, and OMICS Green Energy at Florida USA. He is a Founder & Owner of Egyptian Modern Center which is a firm for contracting & consultations, trying to find its way in a polluted environment all over the Earth.
Having the white light that comes from our sun, which Isaac Newton has firstly split to 7 colors using spectrum at lab or by the natural humidity on the air to show us the 7 colors of the rainbow; gives us the feeling that things are split on our planet to be natural and when combined or in other words polluted by humans in reality; makes a different color that is black, which is the color that reflects death, oil, coal, and in general pollution. rnrnNegotiations: Pollution is unwanted, harmful stuff contaminating an environment. The race to develop clean energy is motivated by high levels of pollution that people fear are permanently damaging the earth's environment. When you hear about pollution, you’re most likely hearing about chemical emissions into air or water that come from industrial processing. But pollution isn’t just environmental. Anything we think of as pure can be contaminated by pollution & polluted, whether that's a lake or an idea. If a mother finds her son reading trashy magazines instead of doing his homework, she might worry about the pollution in her son's mind. Combining the 3 fundamental fields that consist of sustainable development theory: Environment & Economic & Community or in other words, Industrialization & Globalization & Population Growth will come out of a process where the input & output, of our life on the only planet that we can live on so far can be defined & obtained with NO or at least minimum pollution. rn
- Track 5: Waste Disposal
Track 8: Pollution Control Devices
Track 9: Pollution Solutions
Track 10: Effects of Pollution
University of Texas Medical Branch, Texas, USA
Title: Metal contents of cement dust contributes to lung disease prevalence in cement factory workers
Time : 10:45-11:10
Anthony O Okorodudu completed his Doctorate degree in Pathology from University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and Post-doctoral studies in Clinical Chemistry from Hartford Hospital, Ct, USA. He is the Medical Director of Clinical Chemistry Division at the University of Texas Medical Branch and Medical Director of Laboratory Services for the UTMB/Correctional Managed Care System. He has trained 25 Doctoral students and Post-doctoral fellows and several pathology residents. His publication record includes 100+ peer reviewed publication in reputed journals and 11 book chapters. He currently serves on Editorial Board of two scientific journals and he has served on the board of directors for several scientific organizations.
Introduction: Exposure to cement dust is one of the most common occupational dust and posses’ health threats to the public. This has been associated with the development of laryngeal cancer and other metal related diseases. The mechanism of injury to lung cells (Alveolar macrophages and type II epithelial cell) and disease development by this particulate is still unclear. Objectives: We evaluated the immunotoxicity of two cement dust samples (CDN and CDU) and clinker (CN) using alveolar macrophages and type II epithelial cell relative to their metal contents. Methods: Metals (chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, cadmium and mercury) were quantified using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) was determined by colorimetric method. Endocytosis of particles was assessed using transmission electron microscope. Additionally, apoptosis (annexin-V-PI), intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) generation and reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined using flow cytometry. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) secretion from NR8383 were evaluated by ELISA technique. Results: Our results indicated that Cu, Ni and Mg were significantly higher in CDU relative to CDN. Both total Cr and Cr (VI) were also higher in CDU than in CDN. Cadmium was higher in both CDN and CN. Mercury was more in both CDN and CN, while lead (Pb) was only significantly higher in CN. Alveolar epithelial cells internalized clinker predominantly at the membrane bound vacuoles. The CDU induced more apoptosis, intracellular ROS generation (22% higher) and reduced GSH compared with control, which may be related to the significant Cr (VI) level in CDU. Increase in IL-1β and TNF-α secretion were consistent in both CDN and CDU, while MIP-2 was not significantly increased in cells exposed to both CDU and CDN but significant in cells exposed to clinker. Conclusion: These data suggest that the high metals and Cr (VI) concentrations; known carcinogens may be contributory to the pathologic basis of cement dust toxicity, which may be factory dependent. Endocytosis of cement dust particulates, oxidative stress induced-apoptosis and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines may be the key mechanisms of cement dust immunotoxicity in lung cells. This study revealed that cement dust exposure is a public health threat to both cement factory workers and people located near such factories.
Kafr-El-Sheikh University, Egypt
Time : 11:10-11:35
Ahmed Masoud had his Ph.D degree at the age of 32 years old from Humboldt University (Berlin) and then earned a professorship in 1987 at the age of forty. In 1988 he holds a state Prize in the field of Environmental Science. He was appointed Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture from 2002- 2006, and Dean of the College of Agriculture, University of Kafr El-Sheikh from 2006 -2007. From 2007 until now he is a Professor Emeritus and he has more than 40 papers in the field of Chemistry and Toxicology of pesticides and supervised more than 30 Master and Ph.D. In 2006 he was a visiting Professor of the University Of Hohen Heim Germany. Now He is a Member of Supreme Council of Egyptian Universities, Sector Agricultural Sciences. He is one of the Members in DAAD founder, in German Association of Geir, in Egyptian Society of Toxicology and member of the Arab Society of plant protection. He is a Reviewer in many Scientific Journals.
This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiencies of chemical remediation by advanced oxidation processes [TiO2(nano)//H2O2/UV, ZnO(nano)/H2O2/UV, Fe2+/H2O2/UV, Fe3+/H2O2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, ZnO/H2O2/UV, H2O2/UV and UV] and bioremediation by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Translucens and Aspergillus fumigatus for removal of lindane residue for aqueous media. To confirm the total detoxification of lindane residue in treated water, toxicity test with carried out using the most effect chemical and biological treatments with respect to histological changes in kidney and liver of treated rats relative to control. Nano zinc oxide and titanium dioxide combined with hydrogen peroxide under UV light was the most effective treatments for lindane removal in water. Bioremediation of lindane by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Translucens and Aspergillus fumigatus removed more than 94 and 84% of lindane initial concentration after 32 days of treatment respectively. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation with the most effective chemical and biological treatments (ZnO (nano)/H2O2/UV and Xanthomonas campestris pv. Translucens) on treated rats relative to control. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies for lindane in water.
National Measurement Institute, Australia
Time : 11:35-12:00
Jasminka Jaksic obtained PhD in Chemistry in 2007 at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Subsequently, she worked as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow exploring the human body mechanisms and regulations, Technical Application Specialist for trace level analytical measurements in environmental, food and resources industries. Her last employment was at the National Measurement Institute in the role of Technical Development Manager. Her key objectives were to improve environmental, food, mining/resources and agricultural measurement capabilities through development, implementation and accreditation of new processes. She has recently moved to Dubai, UAE, to seek new challenges locally.
Emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, personal care products and pesticides are increasingly detected in aqueous environmental samples. Significant research is conducted worldwide in order to obtain information regarding their occurrence, fate and health effects. These emerging contaminants are usually detected in environmental waters at concentrations ranging from trace to ppb levels. Their presence in drinking and environmental waters, even at these very low concentrations, has raised concerns among drinking-water regulators, governments, water suppliers and the public, regarding the potential risks to human health. Most existing toxicity data are based on tests performed on single compounds and for short-term exposure. Therefore, the focus of current research has moved to understand the fate and effects of mixture of compounds, their metabolites and/or transformation by-products, as hydrolysis, photolysis and biotic transformations may lead to the formation of more toxic and persistent contaminants. The absence of data and monitoring has resulted in little to no regulation of emerging contaminants in surface waters and finished drinking water supplies. Monitoring data is essential to understand their occurrence levels and frequency. Appropriate regulations governing disposal practices, guidance and enhanced consumer education will support efforts in reducing the environmental impact of emerging contaminants entering the environment. In order to produce a reliable and consistent monitoring data, the development of standardised and sensitive multi-residue analytical methods for the generalised and non-targeted screening of trace organic contaminants in environmental water is needed.
Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, UK
Time : 12:00-12:25
T Maes holds a Master of Science in Advanced Studies in Marine and Lacustrine Sciences and a Master of Science in Biology. He is Co-author of several articles, reports and international guidelines. He coordinates and develops Cefas` international monitoring programmes and provides advice to the UK Government on marine issues. He chairs the OSPAR monitoring and assessment group (MIME) and act as the UK expert on Marine Litter in the European task groups. He manages large, multi-disciplinary research projects and monitoring programmes including leadership of several EU-funded programmes.
The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive states that marine litter need to be at levels that do not adversely affect the ecosystems. Marine Litter, inclusive Microplastics (MP), is one of the descriptors towards achieving GES – Good Environmental Status. However so far, good practices for adequate monitoring or impact determination are relatively sparse. In order to address these issues, the Micro EU Interreg project has monitored MP within the Channel Region in a range of different matrices (water, sediment and biota) and provided a risk assessment based on these field observations in combination with lab experiments and mathematical models. MICRO is a cross border cooperation to prevent environmental, technological and human risks attributed to MP. Furthermore, the project contributed to establish common strategies for environmental risk assessment by modelling the potential impacts on the environment, and by proposing follow-up tools and mitigation measures. The three main pillars of the project are: • Scientific: A risk assessment of the current situation by combining distribution data, modelling and biological effect measurements with socio economic endpoints. • Educational/knowledge exchange: Establishing good practices for adequate monitoring or impact determination across Europe. • Public/scientific awareness: Increase awareness of human behaviour in relation to waste production and management by creating co-responsibility among the different actors. The presentation will give an overview of the outcomes of the MICRO project and focus on the spatial and temporal distribution data and ecotoxicological results of MPs in the Channel area between France, Belgium, Netherlands and UK.
Dr MGR Educational and Research Institute University, India
Time : 12:25-12:50
Vijay Samuel is a hardworking and sincere Academician, Researcher and Entrepreneurship Educator with adequate industrial experience in Wastewater Engineering, Bioremediation, Renewable Energy Technologies and Entrepreneurship Mentoring Activities. He is currently carrying out collaborative research work with VIT University and Anna University (College of Engineering Guindy) Labs and Consultancy Projects with Mumbai based Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology Industry. He holds double Master’s degree in Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Presently he is pursuing Doctoral degree in Bio-electrochemical Engineering.
A Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is a bioreactor that converts chemical energy in the chemical bonds in organic compounds to electrical energy through catalytic reactions of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. It has been known for many years that it is possible to generate electricity directly by using bacteria to break down organic substrates. The recent energy crisis has reinvigorated interests in MFCs among academic researchers as a way to generate electric power or hydrogen from biomass without a net carbon emission into the ecosystem. MFCs can also be used in wastewater treatment facilities to break down organic matters. They have also been studied for applications as biosensors such as sensors for biological oxygen demand monitoring. Power output and Couloumbic efficiency are significantly affected by the types of microbe in the anodic chamber of an MFC, configuration of the MFC and operating conditions. Currently, real-world applications of MFCs are limited because of their low power density level of several thousand mW/m2. Efforts are being made to improve the performance and reduce the construction and operating costs of MFCs. Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) are emerging technologies which use microorganisms to catalyze the reactions at the anode and or cathode. BES research is advancing rapidly and a whole range of applications using different electron donors and acceptors has already been developed. In this mini review, we focus on technological aspects of the expanding application of BESs. We will analyze the anode and cathode half-reactions in terms of their standard and actual potential and report the over potentials of these half-reactions by comparing the reported potentials with their theoretical potentials. When combining anodes with cathodes in a BES, new bottlenecks and opportunities arise. For application of BESs, it is crucial to lower the internal energy losses and increase productivity at the same time. Membranes are a crucial element to obtain high efficiencies and pure products but increase the internal resistance of BESs. The comparison between production of fuels and chemicals in BESs and in present production processes should gain more attention in future BES research. By making this comparison, it will become clear if the scope of BESs can and should be further developed into the field of bio-refineries. This research is carried out to check the heavy metal reduction in tannery effluent using conventional MFC and packed bed/fluidized bed reactors depending on the suitability. In addition to this, water treatment and electricity production studies are carried out too.
Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria
Time : 12:50-13:15
Olugbenga Solomon Bello has completed his PhD in 2008 from the prestigious University of Ibadan in Nigeria. He has completed his Postdoctoral and Visiting Scholar Fellowships at Universiti Sains Malaysia in 2011 and 2014 respectively. He has published over sixty (60) papers in reputable and peer reviewed journals. He is an Associate Professor of Physical Chemistry in the Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
The adsorptive potential of activated carbon prepared by chemical activation of cocoa pod husk (CPHAA) to remove Congo red (CR) dye from its aqueous solution was investigated in this study. CPHAA was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) techniques respectively. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration and solution temperature were studied. Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The equilibrium data were best represented by Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 43.67 mg/g. The kinetic data were fitted to Pseudo-first-order, Pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Intra particle diffusion models; the pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best correlation. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (ΔHO), standard entropy (ΔSO) and standard free energy (ΔGO) were evaluated. The thermodynamic study showed that the process is endothermic, spontaneous and feasible. The mean free energy of adsorption shows that the mechanism is by physisorption. CPHAA was found to be an effective adsorbent for the removal of CR dye from aqueous solution.
VIT University, India
Time : 14:00-14:25
V Sai Saraswathi has completed her MPharmacy (pharmaceutical Chemistry-specialization) from TN Dr. M. G. R Medical University, Chennai during the year 2007. Presently, she is working as an Assistant Professor (Sr) at VIT University, Vellore, INDIA. With passion, she delivers Environmental Science for engineering students for past 10 years. She has published nearly 15 papers in reputed journals. With greater interest, she has been serving as a Nature Club co-ordinator and presently working for various environmental issues.
Distinct land use forms in different areas have affected several levels in all ecosystems. With detailed scientific research it has been established that these environmental impacts can, however, be diminished with a view of sustainable development. One such integrated approach for sustainable development has been implemented for the first time in VIT, an educational institute in a district with an average annual rainfall and temperature of 971 mm and 27.9°C respectively. In a long-term planning in VIT, pollution prevention is recognized as a core part of sustainable development with inclusion of vegetation in the form of Woodstock and lake (both are man-made) as a first step to support a self sustainable environment in an educational system. In Vellore district, water has been reported to be contaminated with metal pollutants - cadmium and lead. Though VIT is part of such a contaminated area due to tannery effluents, the integrated approach has reduced the impact of pollution which is revealed by our simple pH analysis on the soil samples in VIT. 12 random samples were collected by the point method across VIT University campus. The VIT Lake and ground water samples showed the varying pH before rainfall of 7.69 to 8.31 respectively and after rainfall in November 2015 the pH was has increased ranging from 8.03±0.05 to 8.36±0.16 compared to the distilled (Positive control-7.90±0.12) and tap water (Negative control-7.87±0.036). The pH values recorded at VIT in comparison with the reported acidic pH in the grounds of metal pollution clearly substantiates that natural factors like vegetation (Woodstock) and rainfall are crucial for sustainable development in VIT. More factors have to be explored scientifically on the man-made ecosystem for sustainable development of the growing institution and ecosystem which will become a model strategy for human dominated areas.
Bahcesehir University, Turkey
Time : 14:25-14:50
Huseyin Ozdemir is an Assistant Professor at the Civil Engineering Department, Bahcesehir University. He holds a PhD in Environmental Engineering from Marmara University (Istanbul, Turkey). He has MS degree in Environmental Engineering from Istanbul University and BS degree in Environmental Engineering in Marmara University. His research interests include air quality and its impacts, air quality modeling, air quality monitoring, and meteorological modeling.
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important air pollutant due to its adverse effects on human health. It contains heavy metals (HMs) which are potentially toxic in nature and cause more serious health impacts. Vehicle emissions make a large contribution to particle concentrations in urban areas, and exposure to the pollutants near roadways increase the risk of public health problems. To lower the health risks for the urban population, planting vegetation at the roadside can be used to capture the pollutants. Istanbul is the most populous city of Turkey and on-road traffic is increasing rapidly in the city, hence air pollutants especially originating from vehicle traffic is playing a crucial role for the public health. In this study, mitigation effect of roadside trees on the reduction of vehicle-related PM2.5 with its HM composition is investigated in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, 15 roadside coniferous evergreen trees (C. sempervirens) were used under three different cases. Air sample filters and the roadside tree leaves were examined on a dense-traffic roadside in central Istanbul. Findings of the study indicate that roadside trees with greater density configuration have mitigation potential in particulate pollution and pedestrian exposure.
Sakine Ugurlu Karaagac has completed her PhD at Ankara University. She worked at Ankara University as a Research Assistant for three years. She started to work at Plant Protection Central Reseacrh Institute, Toxicology Department as a Scientific Researcher. Now, she is working at Karabuk University, Environmental Engineering Department as an Assistant Prof. Dr. She has published a lot of papers in different journals.
Pollution of waters and marine will lead to the formation of environmental pollution which can not be avoided in the future. Marine pollution is the introduction of substances to the marine environment directly or indirectly. There are different types of pollution inputs into the marine. The most important cause of marine pollution is reducing the amount of oxygen in seawater. This will lead to a serious deterioration of the viability of the seas and destroy the natural balance. The main cause of marine pollution: 1. Contaminants formed by the city built on the shores of the sea, 2. Industrial plants located on the seafront area, 3. Oil platforms and pipelines board on in the seas and oceans, 4. Air and sea vehicles using the road, 5. Ship accidents, especially ships carrying oil, 6. Pollution made with human hands as ignorance or intentional. Because our country is surrounded by sea on three sides, there is a busy ship traffic. Especially Çanakkale and Istanbul Straits, the way the only route connecting the Black Sea to other seas, have heavy ship traffic and involves intensive risk for environmental pollution. In Turkey, we have different kinds of mine beds such as copper, iron, gold, coal, etc. These are another sources of marine pollution. We have different agricultural production activities in wide areas. During the production, different agrochemicals are used and this hazardous and toxic wastes reach the marine environment by different ways. It is very important and diffucult to manage pollution in marine environment because the source of pollution is different in marine environment. In Turkey, pollution conrol management studies are carried out by Directorate General of Environmental Management, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization according to the national and international laws.
- Track 11-12: Pollution Control & Human Impact
Track 13-14: Risk Assessment & Global Warming
Track 15-16: Sustainability & Waste Management
Track 17: Eco technology
University College Hospital, Nigeria
Title: Investigating the prevalence of malaria and pneumonia among under-fives at university of Ilorin teaching hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria
Time : 15:15-15:40
Oyeronke Olubunmi BELLO attended the School of Nursing, University College Hospital, Ibadan between 1994 and 1997 and School of Midwifery, Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomosho (now Bowen University Teaching Hospital) between 1998 and 1999. In her quest for knowledge, she proceeded to the Premier University, University of Ibadan from where she bagged the Bachelor of Education (Health) from the Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education. She is presently a Doctoral student with specifications in school and community health at the same department. She has deep passion for little children; this also prompted her to proceed to University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital from where she was specifically trained to take care of children, thus making her a professional pediatric nurse. She is working presently as Assistant Chief Nursing Officer at the University College Hospital, Ibadan
A quantitative study using retrospective survey design on the prevalence of malaria and pneumonia among under–fives at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) was investigated. It was conducted after an in-depth review of literature on prevalence of malaria and pneumonia among under-fives. Abraham Maslow’s and Florence Nightingale’s Environmental theories were used as theoretical basis for the study. Target population identified for the study included under-five children admitted and managed at UITH between January 2007 and December 2011. Total number of under-fives used for the study was 852. Data were collected from the Medical and Health Records Department of the Hospital after ethical approval was obtained. Results revealed that malaria has higher prevalence and mortality rate than pneumonia and a significant relationship exists between mortality outcome of malaria and pneumonia. Similarly, it was observed that there is a male preponderance in the prevalence of malaria and pneumonia among under-fives. The study revealed that malaria among under-five still poses a great threat to the health of children because it still has a higher prevalence and mortality than pneumonia, likewise, pneumonia at any stage among under-fives remains life-threatening, thus it should be given proper consideration through early diagnosis, management and prevention.
Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria
Time : 15:40-16:05
A A Kadafa is a Lecturer at Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria. She holds a PhD in Environmental Planning and Management, as well as of Master of Environment Degree with specialization in Environmental Sciences both from University Putra Malaysia in Malaysia. She also holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Microbiology from Ahmadu Bello University in Nigeria. She has carried out research on Solid Waste Management in FCT, Abuja and is currently working on a new research project in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. She is passionate about all things concerning the environment.
Environmental sustainability is a global issue that has received a lot of attention in developed countries. Its importance and relevance cannot be over emphasized, but yet it hasn’t received the attention required in developing countries and seems menial compared to other problems facing the populace. It seems an issue far from the everyday person on the street, but in reality it’s a ticking time bomb just waiting to explode. Municipal solid waste is generated daily with an average of 0.5-1.5 kg/daily per household. Municipal solid waste management has become a health hazard in Nigeria, which is yet to be tackled properly by the government and local authority. It seems less relevant and quite capital intensive, as well as being an area that immediate or long term revenue generation from the sector seems bleak. The everyday person on the street of Nigeria seems unaffected by the waste piles on the streets, around residential and nonresidential dwellings. Improper waste management poses the greatest health risk facing Nigerians. It is quite common to see waste in water ways, streets, storm drains, and gutters and around public places. Literature has attributed the lack of awareness and low perception of the populace as contributing factors of municipal solid waste management issues. There are large populated areas which don’t have any solid waste collection services available to them, and the informal collection system existing consists of individuals whom collect solid waste from residents and dispose of it improperly, which acts to further make issues worse. It is usual for African nations to believe there are more pressing needs of the population that need funding but we are running out of space to hide our garbage. The revenue spent on clearing improperly disposed waste and damages caused could be used towards setting up skeletal solid waste management service in areas where no solid waste management services are available. Improperly disposed solid waste has become an environmental and health hazard in areas like the suburbs of Abuja, the Federal Capital of Nigeria. A survey was carried out in FCT, Abuja towards establishing the solid waste management practice of residents in the Federal Capital and it determined areas within the resident’s practice that affects the proper function of the existing system where applicable.
Hassan I El Shimi is PhD Candidate and works as Researcher and Assistant Lecturer in Chemical Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. He has completed MSc in 2013 from Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University. His current research field is biodiesel/bioethanol production from microalgae and sustainable feedstocks with economic view and wastewater treatment. He has published more than 7 papers in reputed journals and conferences. He is also a member in the Federation of Arab Engineers.
Marine seaweeds (or macro-algae) comprise a considerable part of the littoral biomass. In Egypt, the macroalgae are self-grown on the craggy surface near to the seashore of the Mediterranean and Red Seas, where accumulation of these species creating environmental problems. Seaweeds are multicellular plants growing in salt or fresh water. They are often fast growing and can reach sizes of up to 60 m in length. Macro-algae are known as a highly nutritive food containing vitamins (A & C), protein, mineral, fiber contents, and essential fatty acids, so their utilization in food or pharmaceutical sectors will be profitable. Although the industrial purposes of seaweeds, 90% of marine algae in Japan are marketed for human consumption. Bioethanol production has recent attention worldwide as an alternative to petroleum-derived fuels and macro-algae is suggested to be a promising feedstock for bioethanol commercialization as they contain 50% carbohydrates, 7-38% minerals and 10-47% proteins. This research summarizes the present state of seaweeds applications industrially and proposed schematic plans for best utilization pathways of macro-algae obtaining zero waste estate and sustainable environment.
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
Title: Adsorption equilibrium and kinetic study of removal of nitrate from drinking water supplies by chitosan composite
Time : 16:55-17:20
Wondalem Misganaw Golie is PhD Research Scholar in the Department Chemical Engineering, at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India. He has completed his BTech in 2007 in Chemical Engineering from at Defence University, College of Engineering, Ethiopia, and MTech in 2010 in High Energy Materials from Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, India. He was Lecturer and Head of Chemical Engineering Department at Defence University, College of Engineering, Ethiopia from 2010 to 2013.
Nitrate is one of the most widespread water contaminants in the world, and high nitrate concentrations in drinking water can lead to a potential risk to public health such as methaemoglobinemia and cancer. Therefore, removal of nitrate from drinking water supplies is required in order to protect human health. In this study, cross-linked protonated chitosan/alumina (ChAl) was prepared and utilized for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions. The structural information of ChAl composite was examined by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the surface morphology was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The kinetic, equilibrium modeling, thermodynamic parameters, and adsorption characteristics have been studied. The adsorption characteristics and process variables were investigated by examining different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial nitrate concentration, stirring speed, presence of competing ions, and temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity of nitrate on ChAl composite was 92.59 mg/L at 303 K. Adsorption equilibrium models were evaluated using experimental results and the data were well fitted to the linear Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics data reveals that the adsorption of nitrate onto the ChAl composite is better described by pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated in the temperature range of 293-313 K in which the negative values of ∆Go and positive value of ∆Ho indicate the spontaneity and the endothermic nature of nitrate adsorption, respectively. The magnitude of heat of adsorption was 24.19 kJ/mol which confirms that adsorption is favored by physical forces. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that adsorption of nitrate was endothermic and spontaneous. The main driving force for the adsorption of nitrate was by electrostatic interaction between the anion and the positive functional groups in the adsorbent. The reusability of adsorbent was evaluated by sequential adsorption-desorption cycles and it was found that 27.89% loss of the actual adsorption capacity of the adsorbent in sixth cycle of adsorption experiments. The results revealed that the ChAl composite was a low-cost, effective, good mechanical integrity, and reusable adsorbent for the nitrate removal from drinking water supplies.
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Title: Environmental contamination and biological monitoring of lead and other heavy metals in goats in Bagega, Zamfara, Nigeria
Time : 17:20-17:45
Jagun A J has a PhD in Veterinary Pathology from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. She is a lecturer of clinical pathology in the department of pathology in the University of Ibadan. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editor of repute.
The Zamfara State, Nigeria lead poisoning episode is one of the gold ore-processing activities which poses risk of lead poisoning of livestock, man and the environment, due to indiscriminate small-scale artisan gold mining. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of heavy metals on exposed goats and their associated pathologies. Mining activities were observation while environmental contamination was determined by X-ray florescence (XRF) machine. The level of Lead and other associated metals (cadmium, chromium, selenium and copper) were evaluated in tissue of 282 exposed goats in Bagega, and in 60 control goats using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Active and large scale mining was on-going in Bagega community; soil lead levels around the households and ore processing sites were above acceptable levels with values ranging from 500ppm to 2,000ppm and 1,000ppm to above 4,000ppm respectively. Blood levels in exposed goats for lead, cadmium, chromium, selenium and copper were 225.8±157.3 µg/dl, 35.9±10.5 µg/dl, 55.7±23.5 µg/dl, 823.9±277.0 µg/dl and 130.8±41.3 µg/dl, respectively and were significantly higher than in corresponding control goats. The blood lead levels were classified as severe (67.0%), moderate (15.2%) and acceptable (17.7%) in the exposed goats. Tissue lead residues were high in exposed goats (kidneys and livers). Heavy metal levels environment tissues of exposed goats in Bagega, Zamfara State, Nigeria are hereby reported. Lead in the tissues of livestock pose public health hazard to humans, judging from the fact that goats from these affected areas are transported to other parts of the country for human consumption.
Satya Subham Rout is pursuing his BTech (Hons.) in Mechanical Engineering from Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India. He has been associated with many National Level Science Exhibitions where he has won many prizes and recognitions in events like National Science Congress and Amateur Scientist Program, Young India Science Fest and many other University and College level competitions for his projects which were generally based on Environmental Pollution, tracking and solutions.
Automated Air Purification System for Outdoors (AAPSO) is a unique air purification system conceptualized on the modern air purification standards to meet the pollution demands of the busy industrial cities and the slow moving rural areas as well. It has been designed with the ability to remove particulate matter and allergens and microbes from air and make the surrounding air cleaner to breathe and live. It is based on the modern methods like HEPA and ionizer which are the most energy efficient and favorable Indoor Air Purification systems and running on solar power also, this mechanism can help clean out outdoor air almost perfectly and efficiently. Moreover the design has been conceptualized keeping in mind the dynamics of air flow and Bernoulli’s principles. The concept has been derived from nature. Trees, as they form a basis of air purification in the ecosystem, give it inspiration and the mechanism used in it is very cheap and easily available without much strain. However, further modifications to this concept can take this to greater efficiency to tackle the modern Pollution problem that the world is facing today.
Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, India
Shanthi S. has completed her PhD at the age of 27 years from Nagpur University and doing postdoctoral studies under the guidance of Dr. M.K.N. Yenki, Laxminarayan Institute of science, Nagpur. She has more than 12 years of research and teaching experience. Her research area is majorily focused on water and wastewater treatment technologies.
Most successful methods are required to mineralize the expanding number of contaminants at low focuses on the water environment utilizing advanced oxidation process. Phenols, pesticides, fertilizers, cleansers, and other synthetic items are disposed off straightforwardly into nature, without being treated, by means of releasing, controlled or uncontrolled. The degradation of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyaceticacid, a herbicide has been carried out at room temperature by varying the pH. The ozonation of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyaceticacid(2,4D) in aqueous solution as a function of pH-value(pH-4.5,7,9.2)was investigated. Ozonation is a straight forward for all intents and purposes suitable procedure which can be utilized for the evacuation of the herbicide at the contaminant destinations or even purification of contaminated water sample collected post disposal. Thus this experimental work provide a solution for pre as well as post disposal removal of the contaminant 2,4 dichlorophenoxyaceticacid. The analysis work was completed in a constantly stirred reactor. Uniform flow of ozone gas and uniform stirring was ensured using a polymeric diffuser. The initial pH of the solution was adjusted and ozonation carried out. A sharp decrease in concentration of the substrate was found .The results show that the elimination rate of the initial compound increases with the pH value. The conductivity studies confirm the formation of acidic byproducts. The removal of 2,4-D followed second order at pH 4.5 , first order pH 7 and zero order at 9.2. In order to reach useful conclusion about the process the COD of the process was measured. Maximum reduction in concentration takes place at pH 9.2 (87%).